etm.core.util.collection.EDU.oswego.cs.dl.util.concurrent
Class ConcurrentReaderHashMap

java.lang.Object
  extended by java.util.AbstractMap
      extended by etm.core.util.collection.EDU.oswego.cs.dl.util.concurrent.ConcurrentReaderHashMap
All Implemented Interfaces:
java.io.Serializable, java.lang.Cloneable, java.util.Map

public class ConcurrentReaderHashMap
extends java.util.AbstractMap
implements java.util.Map, java.lang.Cloneable, java.io.Serializable

A version of Hashtable that supports mostly-concurrent reading, but exclusive writing. Because reads are not limited to periods without writes, a concurrent reader policy is weaker than a classic reader/writer policy, but is generally faster and allows more concurrency. This class is a good choice especially for tables that are mainly created by one thread during the start-up phase of a program, and from then on, are mainly read (with perhaps occasional additions or removals) in many threads. If you also need concurrency among writes, consider instead using ConcurrentHashMap.

Successful retrievals using get(key) and containsKey(key) usually run without locking. Unsuccessful ones (i.e., when the key is not present) do involve brief synchronization (locking). Also, the size and isEmpty methods are always synchronized.

Because retrieval operations can ordinarily overlap with writing operations (i.e., put, remove, and their derivatives), retrievals can only be guaranteed to return the results of the most recently completed operations holding upon their onset. Retrieval operations may or may not return results reflecting in-progress writing operations. However, the retrieval operations do always return consistent results -- either those holding before any single modification or after it, but never a nonsense result. For aggregate operations such as putAll and clear, concurrent reads may reflect insertion or removal of only some entries. In those rare contexts in which you use a hash table to synchronize operations across threads (for example, to prevent reads until after clears), you should either encase operations in synchronized blocks, or instead use java.util.Hashtable.

This class also supports optional guaranteed exclusive reads, simply by surrounding a call within a synchronized block, as in
ConcurrentReaderHashMap t; ... Object v;
synchronized(t) { v = t.get(k); }

But this is not usually necessary in practice. For example, it is generally inefficient to write:

   ConcurrentReaderHashMap t; ...            // Inefficient version
   Object key; ...
   Object value; ...
   synchronized(t) {
     if (!t.containsKey(key))
       t.put(key, value);
       // other code if not previously present
     }
     else {
       // other code if it was previously present
     }
   }
 
Instead, if the values are intended to be the same in each case, just take advantage of the fact that put returns null if the key was not previously present:
   ConcurrentReaderHashMap t; ...                // Use this instead
   Object key; ...
   Object value; ...
   Object oldValue = t.put(key, value);
   if (oldValue == null) {
     // other code if not previously present
   }
   else {
     // other code if it was previously present
   }
 

Iterators and Enumerations (i.e., those returned by keySet().iterator(), entrySet().iterator(), values().iterator(), keys(), and elements()) return elements reflecting the state of the hash table at some point at or since the creation of the iterator/enumeration. They will return at most one instance of each element (via next()/nextElement()), but might or might not reflect puts and removes that have been processed since they were created. They do not throw ConcurrentModificationException. However, these iterators are designed to be used by only one thread at a time. Sharing an iterator across multiple threads may lead to unpredictable results if the table is being concurrently modified. Again, you can ensure interference-free iteration by enclosing the iteration in a synchronized block.

This class may be used as a direct replacement for any use of java.util.Hashtable that does not depend on readers being blocked during updates. Like Hashtable but unlike java.util.HashMap, this class does NOT allow null to be used as a key or value. This class is also typically faster than ConcurrentHashMap when there is usually only one thread updating the table, but possibly many retrieving values from it.

Implementation note: A slightly faster implementation of this class will be possible once planned Java Memory Model revisions are in place.

[ Introduction to this package. ]

See Also:
Serialized Form

Nested Class Summary
protected static class ConcurrentReaderHashMap.BarrierLock
          A Serializable class for barrier lock *
protected static class ConcurrentReaderHashMap.Entry
          ConcurrentReaderHashMap collision list entry.
protected  class ConcurrentReaderHashMap.HashIterator
           
protected  class ConcurrentReaderHashMap.KeyIterator
           
protected  class ConcurrentReaderHashMap.ValueIterator
           
 
Field Summary
protected  ConcurrentReaderHashMap.BarrierLock barrierLock
          Lock used only for its memory effects.
protected  int count
          The total number of mappings in the hash table.
static int DEFAULT_INITIAL_CAPACITY
          The default initial number of table slots for this table (32).
static float DEFAULT_LOAD_FACTOR
          The default load factor for this table (1.0).
protected  java.util.Set entrySet
           
protected  java.util.Set keySet
           
protected  java.lang.Object lastWrite
          field written to only to guarantee lock ordering.
protected  float loadFactor
          The load factor for the hash table.
protected  ConcurrentReaderHashMap.Entry[] table
          The hash table data.
protected  int threshold
          The table is rehashed when its size exceeds this threshold.
protected  java.util.Collection values
           
 
Constructor Summary
ConcurrentReaderHashMap()
          Constructs a new, empty map with a default initial capacity and load factor.
ConcurrentReaderHashMap(int initialCapacity)
          Constructs a new, empty map with the specified initial capacity and default load factor.
ConcurrentReaderHashMap(int initialCapacity, float loadFactor)
          Constructs a new, empty map with the specified initial capacity and the specified load factor.
ConcurrentReaderHashMap(java.util.Map t)
          Constructs a new map with the same mappings as the given map.
 
Method Summary
 int capacity()
          Return the number of slots in this table
 void clear()
          Removes all mappings from this map.
 java.lang.Object clone()
          Returns a shallow copy of this ConcurrentReaderHashMap instance: the keys and values themselves are not cloned.
 boolean contains(java.lang.Object value)
          Tests if some key maps into the specified value in this table.
 boolean containsKey(java.lang.Object key)
          Tests if the specified object is a key in this table.
 boolean containsValue(java.lang.Object value)
          Returns true if this map maps one or more keys to the specified value.
 java.util.Enumeration elements()
          Returns an enumeration of the values in this table.
 java.util.Set entrySet()
          Returns a collection view of the mappings contained in this map.
protected  boolean eq(java.lang.Object x, java.lang.Object y)
          Check for equality of non-null references x and y.
protected  boolean findAndRemoveEntry(java.util.Map.Entry entry)
          Helper method for entrySet.remove
 java.lang.Object get(java.lang.Object key)
          Returns the value to which the specified key is mapped in this table.
protected  ConcurrentReaderHashMap.Entry[] getTableForReading()
          Get ref to table; the reference and the cells it accesses will be at least as fresh as from last use of barrierLock
 boolean isEmpty()
          Returns true if this map contains no key-value mappings.
 java.util.Enumeration keys()
          Returns an enumeration of the keys in this table.
 java.util.Set keySet()
          Returns a set view of the keys contained in this map.
 float loadFactor()
          Return the load factor
 java.lang.Object put(java.lang.Object key, java.lang.Object value)
          Maps the specified key to the specified value in this table.
 void putAll(java.util.Map t)
          Copies all of the mappings from the specified map to this one.
protected  void recordModification(java.lang.Object x)
          Force a memory synchronization that will cause all readers to see table.
protected  void rehash()
          Rehashes the contents of this map into a new table with a larger capacity.
 java.lang.Object remove(java.lang.Object key)
          Removes the key (and its corresponding value) from this table.
 int size()
          Returns the number of key-value mappings in this map.
protected  java.lang.Object sput(java.lang.Object key, java.lang.Object value, int hash)
          Continuation of put(), called only when synch lock is held and interference has been detected.
protected  java.lang.Object sremove(java.lang.Object key, int hash)
          Continuation of remove(), called only when synch lock is held and interference has been detected.
 java.util.Collection values()
          Returns a collection view of the values contained in this map.
 
Methods inherited from class java.util.AbstractMap
equals, hashCode, toString
 
Methods inherited from class java.lang.Object
finalize, getClass, notify, notifyAll, wait, wait, wait
 
Methods inherited from interface java.util.Map
equals, hashCode
 

Field Detail

barrierLock

protected final ConcurrentReaderHashMap.BarrierLock barrierLock
Lock used only for its memory effects.


lastWrite

protected transient java.lang.Object lastWrite
field written to only to guarantee lock ordering.


DEFAULT_INITIAL_CAPACITY

public static int DEFAULT_INITIAL_CAPACITY
The default initial number of table slots for this table (32). Used when not otherwise specified in constructor.


DEFAULT_LOAD_FACTOR

public static final float DEFAULT_LOAD_FACTOR
The default load factor for this table (1.0). Used when not otherwise specified in constructor.

See Also:
Constant Field Values

table

protected transient ConcurrentReaderHashMap.Entry[] table
The hash table data.


count

protected transient int count
The total number of mappings in the hash table.


threshold

protected int threshold
The table is rehashed when its size exceeds this threshold. (The value of this field is always (int)(capacity * loadFactor).)


loadFactor

protected float loadFactor
The load factor for the hash table.


keySet

protected transient java.util.Set keySet

entrySet

protected transient java.util.Set entrySet

values

protected transient java.util.Collection values
Constructor Detail

ConcurrentReaderHashMap

public ConcurrentReaderHashMap(int initialCapacity,
                               float loadFactor)
Constructs a new, empty map with the specified initial capacity and the specified load factor.

Parameters:
initialCapacity - the initial capacity The actual initial capacity is rounded to the nearest power of two.
loadFactor - the load factor of the ConcurrentReaderHashMap
Throws:
java.lang.IllegalArgumentException - if the initial maximum number of elements is less than zero, or if the load factor is nonpositive.

ConcurrentReaderHashMap

public ConcurrentReaderHashMap(int initialCapacity)
Constructs a new, empty map with the specified initial capacity and default load factor.

Parameters:
initialCapacity - the initial capacity of the ConcurrentReaderHashMap.
Throws:
java.lang.IllegalArgumentException - if the initial maximum number of elements is less than zero.

ConcurrentReaderHashMap

public ConcurrentReaderHashMap()
Constructs a new, empty map with a default initial capacity and load factor.


ConcurrentReaderHashMap

public ConcurrentReaderHashMap(java.util.Map t)
Constructs a new map with the same mappings as the given map. The map is created with a capacity of twice the number of mappings in the given map or 16 (whichever is greater), and a default load factor.

Method Detail

recordModification

protected final void recordModification(java.lang.Object x)
Force a memory synchronization that will cause all readers to see table. Call only when already holding main synch lock.


getTableForReading

protected final ConcurrentReaderHashMap.Entry[] getTableForReading()
Get ref to table; the reference and the cells it accesses will be at least as fresh as from last use of barrierLock


eq

protected boolean eq(java.lang.Object x,
                     java.lang.Object y)
Check for equality of non-null references x and y.


size

public int size()
Returns the number of key-value mappings in this map.

Specified by:
size in interface java.util.Map
Overrides:
size in class java.util.AbstractMap
Returns:
the number of key-value mappings in this map.

isEmpty

public boolean isEmpty()
Returns true if this map contains no key-value mappings.

Specified by:
isEmpty in interface java.util.Map
Overrides:
isEmpty in class java.util.AbstractMap
Returns:
true if this map contains no key-value mappings.

get

public java.lang.Object get(java.lang.Object key)
Returns the value to which the specified key is mapped in this table.

Specified by:
get in interface java.util.Map
Overrides:
get in class java.util.AbstractMap
Parameters:
key - a key in the table.
Returns:
the value to which the key is mapped in this table; null if the key is not mapped to any value in this table.
Throws:
java.lang.NullPointerException - if the key is null.
See Also:
put(Object,Object)

containsKey

public boolean containsKey(java.lang.Object key)
Tests if the specified object is a key in this table.

Specified by:
containsKey in interface java.util.Map
Overrides:
containsKey in class java.util.AbstractMap
Parameters:
key - possible key.
Returns:
true if and only if the specified object is a key in this table, as determined by the equals method; false otherwise.
Throws:
java.lang.NullPointerException - if the key is null.
See Also:
contains(Object)

put

public java.lang.Object put(java.lang.Object key,
                            java.lang.Object value)
Maps the specified key to the specified value in this table. Neither the key nor the value can be null.

The value can be retrieved by calling the get method with a key that is equal to the original key.

Specified by:
put in interface java.util.Map
Overrides:
put in class java.util.AbstractMap
Parameters:
key - the table key.
value - the value.
Returns:
the previous value of the specified key in this table, or null if it did not have one.
Throws:
java.lang.NullPointerException - if the key or value is null.
See Also:
Object.equals(Object), get(Object)

sput

protected java.lang.Object sput(java.lang.Object key,
                                java.lang.Object value,
                                int hash)
Continuation of put(), called only when synch lock is held and interference has been detected.


rehash

protected void rehash()
Rehashes the contents of this map into a new table with a larger capacity. This method is called automatically when the number of keys in this map exceeds its capacity and load factor.


remove

public java.lang.Object remove(java.lang.Object key)
Removes the key (and its corresponding value) from this table. This method does nothing if the key is not in the table.

Specified by:
remove in interface java.util.Map
Overrides:
remove in class java.util.AbstractMap
Parameters:
key - the key that needs to be removed.
Returns:
the value to which the key had been mapped in this table, or null if the key did not have a mapping.
Throws:
java.lang.NullPointerException - if the key is null.

sremove

protected java.lang.Object sremove(java.lang.Object key,
                                   int hash)
Continuation of remove(), called only when synch lock is held and interference has been detected.


containsValue

public boolean containsValue(java.lang.Object value)
Returns true if this map maps one or more keys to the specified value. Note: This method requires a full internal traversal of the hash table, and so is much slower than method containsKey.

Specified by:
containsValue in interface java.util.Map
Overrides:
containsValue in class java.util.AbstractMap
Parameters:
value - value whose presence in this map is to be tested.
Returns:
true if this map maps one or more keys to the specified value.
Throws:
java.lang.NullPointerException - if the value is null.

contains

public boolean contains(java.lang.Object value)
Tests if some key maps into the specified value in this table. This operation is more expensive than the containsKey method.

Note that this method is identical in functionality to containsValue, (which is part of the Map interface in the collections framework).

Parameters:
value - a value to search for.
Returns:
true if and only if some key maps to the value argument in this table as determined by the equals method; false otherwise.
Throws:
java.lang.NullPointerException - if the value is null.
See Also:
Map, containsKey(Object), containsValue(Object)

putAll

public void putAll(java.util.Map t)
Copies all of the mappings from the specified map to this one.

These mappings replace any mappings that this map had for any of the keys currently in the specified Map.

Specified by:
putAll in interface java.util.Map
Overrides:
putAll in class java.util.AbstractMap
Parameters:
t - Mappings to be stored in this map.

clear

public void clear()
Removes all mappings from this map.

Specified by:
clear in interface java.util.Map
Overrides:
clear in class java.util.AbstractMap

clone

public java.lang.Object clone()
Returns a shallow copy of this ConcurrentReaderHashMap instance: the keys and values themselves are not cloned.

Overrides:
clone in class java.util.AbstractMap
Returns:
a shallow copy of this map.

keySet

public java.util.Set keySet()
Returns a set view of the keys contained in this map. The set is backed by the map, so changes to the map are reflected in the set, and vice-versa. The set supports element removal, which removes the corresponding mapping from this map, via the Iterator.remove, Set.remove, removeAll, retainAll, and clear operations. It does not support the add or addAll operations.

Specified by:
keySet in interface java.util.Map
Overrides:
keySet in class java.util.AbstractMap
Returns:
a set view of the keys contained in this map.

values

public java.util.Collection values()
Returns a collection view of the values contained in this map. The collection is backed by the map, so changes to the map are reflected in the collection, and vice-versa. The collection supports element removal, which removes the corresponding mapping from this map, via the Iterator.remove, Collection.remove, removeAll, retainAll, and clear operations. It does not support the add or addAll operations.

Specified by:
values in interface java.util.Map
Overrides:
values in class java.util.AbstractMap
Returns:
a collection view of the values contained in this map.

entrySet

public java.util.Set entrySet()
Returns a collection view of the mappings contained in this map. Each element in the returned collection is a Map.Entry. The collection is backed by the map, so changes to the map are reflected in the collection, and vice-versa. The collection supports element removal, which removes the corresponding mapping from the map, via the Iterator.remove, Collection.remove, removeAll, retainAll, and clear operations. It does not support the add or addAll operations.

Specified by:
entrySet in interface java.util.Map
Specified by:
entrySet in class java.util.AbstractMap
Returns:
a collection view of the mappings contained in this map.

findAndRemoveEntry

protected boolean findAndRemoveEntry(java.util.Map.Entry entry)
Helper method for entrySet.remove


keys

public java.util.Enumeration keys()
Returns an enumeration of the keys in this table.

Returns:
an enumeration of the keys in this table.
See Also:
keySet(), Map, Enumeration, elements()

elements

public java.util.Enumeration elements()
Returns an enumeration of the values in this table. Use the Enumeration methods on the returned object to fetch the elements sequentially.

Returns:
an enumeration of the values in this table.
See Also:
values(), Map, Enumeration, keys()

capacity

public int capacity()
Return the number of slots in this table


loadFactor

public float loadFactor()
Return the load factor



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